1. Continuous characters.
Several classes of methods are available for the reconstruction of the evolution of continuous characters. These are the squared-change parsimony method (Maddison 1991), the maximum likelihood method (Schluter et al. 1997), the generalized least squares method (GLS; Martins and Lamont 1998), the independent contrasts method (Garland et al. 1999; Garland and Ives 2000) and the linear parsimony method (Maddison and Maddison 2000).
Under a Brownian motion model of evolution, Schluter et al. (1997) employed likelihood methods to study the evolution of continuous characters.
Models of continuous characters.
Examples of character evolution studies